Theories of nursing that are Middle-Range tend to be more specific in focus and offer more concrete connections between Grand Nursing Theories and Nursing Practice. The concepts of Middle-Range theories tend to be less abstract and tend to be more verifiable through testing. These theories can often attempt to describe, explain, or predict certain phenomenon in clinical practice.
Middle-range theory is an approach to sociological theory that lies between minor and essential working hypotheses and the entire systematic, unified theory. Such working hypotheses are perceived to be more elaborate than simple empirical generalizations. Middle-range theories are also defined as sets of assumptions used to derive general empirical assumptions. Such theories provide a method of sociological thinking that entails a combination of theories and actual evidence. The middle-range theories were developed by Robert Merton, and the main aim was to enable the explanation of social phenomena as an alternative to the general theory of inquiry.
Internal criticism in the evaluation of middle-range theories is defined as the internal setup of how distinct elements of a theory unite. On the other hand, external criticism views the link of a concept and its union to well-being, nursing, and individuals.
Internal criticism refers to the internal structure of how the various components of the theory fit together to make the theory operational. Internal criticism investigates numerous questions about how the theory’s various components interact to make the model effective.
The evaluation of the internal and external criticism of middle-range theories requires varied procedures. While internal criticism focuses on the evaluation of the structure of a theory, external evaluation involves the relationship between a concept and its relationship with the research. Internal criticism examines aspects like a logical development, consistency, adequacy, clarity, and the theory development level. On the other hand, external criticism examines aspects like utility, discrimination significance, reality convergence, the scope of approach, and complexity.
In conclusion, both internal and external criticisms must be taken into account when analyzing a theory for making a judgement whether this theory can be applied to research and the clinical practice. Many literature reviews of internal and external critiques have been used in examining middle-range theories
200 words / 2 references / APA style 7 / 5 years or less
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